# Dividing Polynomials - Definition, Synthetic Division, Long Division, and Examples

Polynomials are math expressions that comprises of one or several terms, each of which has a variable raised to a power. Dividing polynomials is a crucial operation in algebra which includes working out the remainder and quotient as soon as one polynomial is divided by another. In this blog, we will explore the different techniques of dividing polynomials, involving synthetic division and long division, and give scenarios of how to use them.

We will also talk about the significance of dividing polynomials and its applications in different domains of mathematics.

## Prominence of Dividing Polynomials

Dividing polynomials is an important operation in algebra which has many applications in various domains of mathematics, consisting of number theory, calculus, and abstract algebra. It is utilized to work out a wide array of problems, including figuring out the roots of polynomial equations, working out limits of functions, and working out differential equations.

In calculus, dividing polynomials is applied to work out the derivative of a function, that is the rate of change of the function at any point. The quotient rule of differentiation includes dividing two polynomials, that is applied to work out the derivative of a function that is the quotient of two polynomials.

In number theory, dividing polynomials is utilized to study the properties of prime numbers and to factorize large values into their prime factors. It is also used to learn algebraic structures for instance rings and fields, which are fundamental concepts in abstract algebra.

In abstract algebra, dividing polynomials is used to determine polynomial rings, that are algebraic structures that generalize the arithmetic of polynomials. Polynomial rings are used in many fields of math, comprising of algebraic number theory and algebraic geometry.

## Synthetic Division

Synthetic division is an approach of dividing polynomials that is utilized to divide a polynomial by a linear factor of the form (x - c), where c is a constant. The approach is founded on the fact that if f(x) is a polynomial of degree n, subsequently the division of f(x) by (x - c) provides a quotient polynomial of degree n-1 and a remainder of f(c).

The synthetic division algorithm consists of writing the coefficients of the polynomial in a row, using the constant as the divisor, and carrying out a sequence of workings to work out the quotient and remainder. The outcome is a simplified form of the polynomial that is easier to work with.

## Long Division

Long division is a technique of dividing polynomials which is applied to divide a polynomial with any other polynomial. The approach is based on the reality that if f(x) is a polynomial of degree n, and g(x) is a polynomial of degree m, where m ≤ n, subsequently the division of f(x) by g(x) offers uf a quotient polynomial of degree n-m and a remainder of degree m-1 or less.

The long division algorithm consists of dividing the greatest degree term of the dividend with the highest degree term of the divisor, and subsequently multiplying the result with the entire divisor. The result is subtracted of the dividend to get the remainder. The procedure is repeated as far as the degree of the remainder is less than the degree of the divisor.

## Examples of Dividing Polynomials

Here are some examples of dividing polynomial expressions:

### Example 1: Synthetic Division

Let's assume we need to divide the polynomial f(x) = 3x^3 + 4x^2 - 5x + 2 with the linear factor (x - 1). We could use synthetic division to streamline the expression:

1 | 3 4 -5 2 | 3 7 2 |---------- 3 7 2 4

The result of the synthetic division is the quotient polynomial 3x^2 + 7x + 2 and the remainder 4. Therefore, we can state f(x) as:

f(x) = (x - 1)(3x^2 + 7x + 2) + 4

### Example 2: Long Division

Example 2: Long Division

Let's say we want to divide the polynomial f(x) = 6x^4 - 5x^3 + 2x^2 + 9x + 3 by the polynomial g(x) = x^2 - 2x + 1. We can apply long division to simplify the expression:

First, we divide the highest degree term of the dividend with the largest degree term of the divisor to get:

6x^2

Then, we multiply the total divisor with the quotient term, 6x^2, to obtain:

6x^4 - 12x^3 + 6x^2

We subtract this from the dividend to obtain the new dividend:

6x^4 - 5x^3 + 2x^2 + 9x + 3 - (6x^4 - 12x^3 + 6x^2)

that streamlines to:

7x^3 - 4x^2 + 9x + 3

We recur the procedure, dividing the largest degree term of the new dividend, 7x^3, with the largest degree term of the divisor, x^2, to get:

7x

Then, we multiply the whole divisor by the quotient term, 7x, to achieve:

7x^3 - 14x^2 + 7x

We subtract this of the new dividend to obtain the new dividend:

7x^3 - 4x^2 + 9x + 3 - (7x^3 - 14x^2 + 7x)

which simplifies to:

10x^2 + 2x + 3

We repeat the process again, dividing the largest degree term of the new dividend, 10x^2, by the highest degree term of the divisor, x^2, to obtain:

10

Then, we multiply the entire divisor with the quotient term, 10, to get:

10x^2 - 20x + 10

We subtract this of the new dividend to get the remainder:

10x^2 + 2x + 3 - (10x^2 - 20x + 10)

that streamlines to:

13x - 10

Therefore, the answer of the long division is the quotient polynomial 6x^2 - 7x + 9 and the remainder 13x - 10. We could express f(x) as:

f(x) = (x^2 - 2x + 1)(6x^2 - 7x + 9) + (13x - 10)

## Conclusion

Ultimately, dividing polynomials is an essential operation in algebra that has several uses in various domains of math. Getting a grasp of the different approaches of dividing polynomials, for instance synthetic division and long division, could help in working out complicated challenges efficiently. Whether you're a learner struggling to understand algebra or a professional working in a field that consists of polynomial arithmetic, mastering the concept of dividing polynomials is essential.

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